Canada is one of the most secure and peaceful countries on the planet.
With a violent crime rate that, despite a steady increase in recent years, pales in comparison to that of American urban centres, Canadian cities receive international acclaim for their astounding levels of safety.
TL;DR Canada makes use of road cameras to survey and monitor the public. These maps show their exact locations in every major Canadian city.
Nevertheless, Canadian law enforcement remains vigilant.
While federal and local police in Canada are much less severe and militarized than their American counterparts, Canadian agencies, too, have taken part in the increasingly intense law enforcement protocols that have become common across North America and Europe.
The most controversial of these efforts, of course, is public surveillance.
While Canada's public surveillance system is less famous than those in the United States and United Kingdom, it does exist.
Road cameras are the most well-known of these surveillance tactics.
There are potentially thousands of road cameras across the country, all of which are regularly if not constantly monitored.
And while the cameras are designed to catch traffic violations, they can also be used as a method of public surveillance more broadly, according to Wired. The cameras, of course, also capture activity on sidewalks and public open spaces.
According to the Office of the Public Privacy Commissioner of Canada, Canadian law enforcement agencies "increasingly view it as a legitimate tool to combat crime and ward off criminal activity—including terrorism."
In a public guideline, the commissioner's office goes on to state that public surveillance, including road cameras, "[present] a challenge to privacy, to freedom of movement and freedom of association."
"Video surveillance of public places subjects everyone to scrutiny, regardless of whether they have done anything to arouse suspicion," the guideline continues.
The document also confirms that Canadian authorities make use of "facial recognition systems and pattern recognition software" in through public surveillance cameras.
While the locations of the cameras are (now) public information, most Canadians are unaware that authorities have placed them so extensively in every Canadian city.
To give you a sense of the scope of road surveillance in Canada, we've compiled these maps, which depict the exact locations of road cameras in every major Canadian city.
All of this information comes from public data. Remember that the locations and number of cameras are subject to change.
The city of Vancouver posts this map on its website.
Here's a closer look at downtown Vancouver:
Calgary residents can find this map at this public site.
Here's a closer view of downtown Calgary:
Find this map on the city of Edmonton website. The image on the left shows the entire city. The image on the right is a close-up of the downtown area.
Interestingly, Winnipeg citizens had to sue the city police department to release the locations of road cameras, according to Access Winnipeg. The information on the maps below comes from PhotoEnforced.com. Winnipeg residents can also review the list of road camera locations here.
Find this public map of road cameras in Toronto here.
Here's a view of the area north of downtown:
Ottawa seems to have one of the highest densities of road cameras of any Canadian city, which makes sense given its political importance. This map is available through the city of Ottawa website.
This map focuses on downtown Ottawa:
This is a view of the area west of downtown:
Montreal has road cameras on almost every street corner. The scale of this surveillance effort is astounding. This map is available through the Ville de Montréal website. This is a view of the downtown area:
This is a view of the popular Plateau and Mile End neighbourhoods: